Many of these can be found among all size varieties and others are more common to either the toy, mini or standard Poodle. We will go over some basic yet important health care tips and then cover the health issues and diseases that owners should be aware of. Essential Health Care Tips For a dog to simply survive, they must have food, water and shelter.
Another major problem associated with urban transport is the dependency on automobiles, which leads to air pollution and excessive waste of energy. According to a study which was conducted on 32 major cities of different continents, which divided cities into five categories in terms of automobile dependency.
As Newman, indicates that "most U. S and Australian To what extent can the problems were within categories one and two which have a high or very high automobile dependence and at most, a minor role for public transport, walking and cycling. Most European cities fell into categories three and four that had moderate or low automobile dependence and an important role for public transport.
However, Munich and Paris, both among the most prosperous cities in Europe, along with three of the most prosperous Asian cities Tokyo, Singapore, Hong Kong had a very low automobile dependence with public transport, walking and cycling more important than cars" P.
However, urbanization has become a global trend with its problems, there are a couple of solutions to the problems of the shortage of urban land and urban transport.
One of the ways to tackle and solve the problem of urban land shortage is to discourage people from rural to urban migration. As Bilham - Boult et al, says that "the key thing to do is to improve conditions in other areas so that people do not wish to migrate for the apparent advantages of the city" P.
Also considering the improvement of their education and social services, providing the employment in their origin residential area as well as improvement of transportation system to make them able to commute every day.
Also as Bilham - Boult et al, states that "sincepeople have been leaving the urban areas of Europe to live in the semi-rural areas on the urban fringes. This has been made possible by improved transport" P. Another reason of deurbanization of European was the "anti - urban feelings" which they considered urban areas as "crowded, congested, polluted, stressful as opposed to rural peace" P.
Another major and key solution to this phenomenon is by building smaller metropolitan cities. For instance, Bilham - Boult et al, says that "Hong Kong and Singapore have built high density housing to reduce their problems of housing shortage Kuala Lumpur used the same solution but built low-rise four-story blocks.
In all three cases the new residents were able to pay rents for their flats" P. As far as urban transport system is a big concern, there are a number of solutions for this issue. In fact many researchers suggest that "public transport infrastructure" should be developed in order to avoid dependency on automobiles, which will not only avoid traffic jams, but also will avoid from excessive usage of energy and air pollution Newman, Another example of solution to this problem comes from Los Angeles, where the Metro project was established to decrease traffic congestion, building railways over and below ground, shuttle buses, improved freeway motor-waysome toll road and "car pool" Thisdell, But, what would be the solution for LECDs since they are not able to provide such a huge amount.
Another solution for this problem can be pedestrian or cycle orientation, as Newman, explains that "if the is to provide for the most efficient, equitable and human form of transport, this means a city with provision for cycling, good walking space on streets and in public squares, and traffic-free shopping streets" P.
As a result, in order to make these solutions applicable, we need to take a step towards planning and control, which is a vital and important part of policy of sustainable development Newman, In conclusion, urbanization is happening all around the world without there being any serious precaution and plan to take against it.
It causes a lot of problems such as, water, land and air pollution, housing, high birth rates, poverty, low employment rate and many others. To restrict these problems, we need to implement the policies of sustainable development introduced by some countries.
However, some researchers suggest that the policies may work for a short period of time. Whereas, it only focuses on economical aspects rather than environmental aspect of the society. References List Adams, M.What extent can solve the Problems of Urbanization?
posted Nov 30, , PM by Yuhui Tang [ updated Nov 30, , PM] Nowadays, there are a large number of urbanization problems in the world. The Hawthorne effect (also referred to as the observer effect) is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.
The original research at the Hawthorne Works in Cicero, Illinois, on lighting changes and work structure changes such as working hours and break times was originally interpreted by Elton Mayo and others.
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As a result of the global cities study, we can say that urban transport difficulties are almost the same both in MEDCs and LEDCs (Newman, ).
However, urbanization has . The output image, or 'missed' image, is a minimal image, one pixel in size at a 0 offset, but with original images page or canvas size, as well as any other meta-data the image may have associated.
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