Software architecture Software architecture This is an individual assignment. Please include your name and the assignment number in the name of the file you submit. Problem Description Refined version of Assignment 4: The have provided a revised description next paragraphwith some more details.
Archive Words Andrew Benjamin This is an article from the Architecture Australia archives and may use outdated formatting.
Email us if you would like us to consider upgrading it to the current format. Andrew Benjamin argues that Australian architecture must open itself to the wider world of public policy.
We can do this, he believes, by acknowledging that architecture is always traversed by the complexities of culture. Online Media Centre, by Lyons. Trevor Mein, courtesy Kayne Construction. Federation Square by Lab architecture studio in association with Bates Smart.
This move, which separates ornament and culture, links Modernist architecture to the culture of modernity. Reading this now two things emerge. The first is a statement of intent — Modernist architecture clearly defines itself in relation to culture.
The second is a question — how today can the relation between architecture and culture to be understood? In purely strategic terms, the question is relevant, since policy — usually in terms of government policy and even architectural criticism — often uses straightforwardly economic criteria to make decisions or draw conclusions.
The task in this essay is to address this presence and to draw conclusions that might have relevance for policy directed decisions, as well as evaluative ones. This essay was prompted by the refusal of public money to the Australian pavilion at the recent Venice Biennale, but more importantly, by the need to engage with the issues that such a refusal raises.
For the most part, these issues do not pertain to the relative strength or weakness of Australian architecture, but rather to the way in which it defines itself.
One relates to activities that are often understood as specific to architecture.
The other is inextricably connected to the realm of human existence and demarcates the ways in which human life differentiates itself from nature. Taken in isolation each is potentially problematic — holding to the exclusivity of the culture of architecture denies its presence as part of human society, while thinking of architecture as nothing other than cultural precludes any consideration of, for example, the way different materials realize different effects within architectural practice.
Recognizing that these two different senses of culture are interrelated can provide a way through this complex set of considerations.
Insisting this interrelation introduces another defining element into the equation. Indeed, it marks the point of relation: Architecture is essentially public. Architecture can define its sphere of operation as the construction of objects that are understood as only ever private, and which thus only open up the already circumscribed worlds of individual activity — for example, the house.
Or architecture can insist on its inherently public nature. The distinction between these two positions — opening in or opening out — is not a distinction between architecture as an academic activity on the one hand and as a worldly activity on the other. Instead, different conceptions of practice are at work here — in both instances there can be a championing of materials over programme; in both, a concern with the environmental consequences of building can be paramount; equally, issues pertaining to sustainability can drive each of them.
Yet the distinction is crucial. Architecture can be described as opening in when it defines itself as an activity of construction for individuals to suit individual needs. In working from the outside in, space is created that reproduces the desires of clients — the world takes on the veneer of the private.
This is a conception of the private in which the individual — either singularly or as a unit — has primacy. Architecture begins to define itself in these terms when this conception of practice — and world creation — becomes the basis for future discussions and evaluations.
Once the object is understood as having been created for the individual — including a conception of the public as the totality of individuals — it follows that architecture is the expression of personalities, and that the built object expresses the personality of the client.
Or at least that this would be the desired intent on both sides. Equally, because construction, understood in this light, is always defined by a conception of individual taste, there cannot be a link to any conception of culture beyond the generalization of the individual.
It is not difficult to imagine that once this is accepted as the definition of architecture — and it is a self-definition that works at a range of different scales — architecture will be inevitably understood as a series of produced built, constructed, et cetera objects that are created by individuals to serve individual ends.
Since the public is always counterposed to the individual — and this is true even when the public is understood as the abstract presence of the totality of individuals — architecture will be defined in terms of singular relations. Once there is a turn towards the interior there is no need to think in terms of the registration of the exterior.
Those elements — at a minimum, the exterior to which architecture opens out — pertain to culture understood as part of the public domain. The limit of this definition is not to do with a specific programme, although the apparent preoccupation of Australian architecture with domestic housing only exacerbates the situation.
The insistence on the interior and the associated definition of architecture in terms of individual concerns — and reciprocally as only of concern for individuals — make it a simple matter to locate architecture as no more than an economic activity.
In this framework the house would have a bespoke suit as its correlate.
The refusal of the public is, of course, a position taken in relation to the inherently public nature of architecture. The already present place of culture needs to be noted.Search to find a specific architecture essay or browse from the list below: Morris Lapidus Miami Beach Hotels Design Morris Lapidus was one of the most important architects of the 20st century, not because of what he built but because of the way.
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