Freud Civilization and Its Discontents Humankind strives for happinessbut according to Sigmund Freud, the creation of civilization as a means to further this goal has instead generated unhappiness. In his book Civilization and its Discontents, Freud asserts the happiness of the individual is often sublimated to the need for civilization to establish law and order.
However, this does not imply that the University answers for the methods that are used or the conclusions that are drawn. Prince, thank you for inspiration and direction.
To my wonderful family, I could never have done this without your love, encouragement and patience. Special thanks also to my friends and fellow students at UiA.
I have been assured That a young healthy child, wellnursed, is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked or broiled; and I make no doubt in that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout 1.
The year wasand the topic addressed was the indifference toward the Irish crisis of overpopulation and hunger. Nearly years later a proposed new mode of fiction came to be in s America. Many of its components had been worked before, but there was a slight variation to be seen, something critics and theoreticians alike have been unable to explain thoroughly.
Like Swift, these authors posited concrete aspects of society s folly to satirize, and they did it in the manner of an artistic yet conscientious social critique. Could it be that the dark and grotesque humor that in layman's terms is known as black humor actually served a greater satiric purpose?
This phenomenon seemed to include a diverse variety of authors such as Kurt Vonnegut, Terry Southern, Joseph Heller, Thomas Pynchon, James Purdy and William Burroughs, but they did not view themselves as a movement at all. Bruce Jay Friedman made an anthology of Black Humor and as Vonnegut puts it, critics picked up the term because it was handy It was a form of short hand 2.
What was it then that motivated writers from all corners of the United States to produce satiric texts that would earn them the label Black Humorists? The notion of Black Humor and the novels of the latest literary movement were subject to an array of analyses during the late sixties and early seventies, and several decades on the debate of core issues, philosophical vision, literary style and matter of origin does not seem quite settled.
Delacorte Press,8 phenomenon of the sixties 3, as Max Schulz proposes, however, as Conrad Knickerbocker states, it is only a new concept in American literature.
Even this notion might be inaccurate as Ambrose Bierce and Mark Twain s works of the late 19 th century bear many resemblances to the works published in the s.
Knickerbocker makes an important point when he writes that Black humor has been part of the response of wiser peoples in other times. Its re appearance in American fiction may signal the end of certain innocences 4. In The Fabulators Robert Scholes traces the lineage of Black Humor to the intellectual comedy of Aristophanes, the flourishing satire of imperial Rome, the humanistic allegories and anatomies of the later middle ages, the picaresque narratives of the Renaissance, the metaphysical poems and satires of the seventeenth century and the great satiric fictions of the Age of Reason 5.
And indeed, the works of the sixties are frequently compared to and analyzed as angry satire in the tradition of Roman satirist Juvenal, and they share many similarities with the satires of British 16 th century pamphleteer Thomas Nashe who bore the nickname young Juvenal in his time.
The works of Nashe s contemporary William Shakespeare are also frequently mentioned in the analysis of Black Humor works, one of the most prominent being the effect of King Lear on Joseph Heller s Catch The darkness of Jonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal has already been mentioned and even Gulliver s Travels ends on the disturbing note that all humans are Yahoos.
A similar conclusion seems to be drawn at the end of Mark Twain s masterpiece Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, as the young protagonist can t stand the thought of being civilized and decides to run away.
Schulz, Black Humor Fiction of the Sixties: The World of Black Humor: Dutton,Robert E.
Scholes, The Fabulators New York,: Oxford University Press, It was however Bruce Jay Friedman that first published an American anthology inand as such initiating the American movement.
These authors seemed to be as varied a collection as Breton s; yet they happened to be writing in the same age, and it seemed it was the age itself that darkened its writers. It was the absurd spirit of the early sixties which caused Friedman to state that the journalist has taken the role of the satirist: The journalist who, in the yearmust cover the ecumenical debate on whether Jews, on the one hand, are still to be known as Christ-killers, or, on the other hand are to be let off the hook, is certainly today s satirist 6.
The author or satirist, who is writing to serve his society 7 as Vonnegut states, must then find new territory in order to affect the reader. This causes Friedman to advocate the discovery of new land and a new set of filters, claiming that the satirist has had to sail into darker waters somewhere out beyond satire and I think this is what is meant by black humor 8.
One of the first great practitioners of satire, Horace, provided some of the earliest pronouncements about the nature of good satire.
In the Horatian tradition of satire, the satirist, speaking out freely, seeks to laugh men out of their follies 9. According to modern formalist conventions, the satiric form has four central elements from by which it may be distinguished. Satire should be rhetorical, corrective and normative, and it should have a clear object of attack.
The formalist interpretive strategy, according to Steven Weisenburger, was developed to contain the great ages of Classical and Neoclassical satire, and was thus believed to have transhistorical validity.Freud’s sister-in-law, Minna Bernays, left for London on 5 May, Martin Freud the following week and Freud’s daughter Mathilde and her husband, Robert Hollitscher, on 24 May.
Sigmund Koch to plan and direct a study which was subsidized by the National Science Foundation. it is no wonder that the therapeutic relationship escapes the rigors of science.) Koch suggests.
Furthermore. he would certainly confirm that psychotherapy “cannot be a coherent science.
The Opinions of Sigmund Freud on the Relation between the Rise of Civilization, Law Enforcement, and the Discontent of the People in a Society. Civilization and Its Discontents is one of the last of Freud's books, written in the decade before his death and first published in German in It is considered his most brilliant work.
In it he states his views on the broad question of man's place in the world. From: A Dangerous Method (Occidental Observer) -- by Penelope Thornton --David Cronenberg’s latest movie gives us his view of the relationship between Sigmund Freud and his pupil, Carl Jung, and even more centrally it tells the story of the affair between Jung and his patient, Sabina Spielrein.
The Soldier as Satirist A study of Black Humor in Joseph Heller s Catch and Kurt Vonnegut s Slaughterhouse Five Mariette Aanensen Supervisor Professor Roy Eriksen This Master s .