Artificial Intelligence Inthe White House released a report about how they can effectively use Artificial Intelligence. Experts feel that the AI can solve a number of challenges that the Public sector faces today.
Strategic Planning in the Public Sector Summary and Keywords Strategic planning has become a fairly routine and common practice at all levels of government in the United States and elsewhere. It can be part of the broader practice of strategic management that links planning with implementation.
Strategic planning can be applied public sector business planning process organizations, collaborations, functions e.
Research results are somewhat mixed, but they generally show a positive relationship between strategic planning and improved organizational performance. Much has been learned about public-sector strategic planning over the past several decades but there is much that is not known.
There are a variety of approaches to strategic planning. Some are comprehensive process-oriented approaches i. Others are more narrowly focused process approaches that are in effect strategies i. Finally, there are content-oriented approaches i. The research on public-sector strategic planning has pursued a number of themes.
The approaches mentioned above may be thought of as generic—their ostensive aspect—but they must be applied contingently and sensitively in practice—their performative aspect. Scholars vary in whether they conceptualize strategic planning in a generic or performative way.
A third theme focuses on outcomes of strategic planning. The outcomes studied typically have been performance-related, such as efficiency and effectiveness, but some studies focus on intermediate outcomes, such as participation and learning, and a small number focus on a broader range of public values, such as transparency or equity.
A final theme looks at what contributes to strategic planning success. Factors related to success include effective leadership, organizational capacity and resources, and participation, among others. A substantial research agenda remains. Public-sector strategic planning is not a single thing, but many things, and can be conceptualized in a variety of ways.
Useful findings have come from each of these different conceptualizations through use of a variety of methodologies. This more open approach to research should continue. Given the increasing ubiquity of strategic planning across the globe, the additional insights this research approach can yield into exactly what works best, in which situations, and why, is likely to be helpful for advancing public purposes.
It can be applied to organizations, collaborations, functions e. This entry focuses solely on planning. Over the past 40 years in the United States, strategic planning by governments and public agencies has become increasingly widespread.
All federal agencies have been required since to engage in strategic planning as a result of the Government Performance and Results Act of and the Government Performance and Results Modernization Act of https: Strategic planning is also increasingly common around the globe, including in non-English-speaking countries and those with an administrative law culture, such as Italy and France e.
Yet, why strategic planning has become an increasingly standard practice is unclear. Understanding the reasons why it is used in different contexts is thus an important topic for future research, in part because those reasons are likely to affect the results of using it.
On the other hand, strategic planning also may be adopted because users think it will help them figure out what their organizations should be doing, how, and why. NPM involves a significant break with or at least a shifting of emphasis from prior eras when government agencies were more typically organized as large, public Weberian bureaucracies in charge of direct service delivery and accountable exclusively, or at least principally, to their political masters.
In contrast, NPM emphasizes: On the other hand, NPM reforms also may conflict with more traditional bureaucratic controls that have been an important part of accountability requirements in a democracy Kettl, For example, in one study Moynihanp.
This entry is organized into the following sections. First, we discuss the meaning of the adjective strategic in front of planning, in contrast to other adjectives such as long-range, program or project, or action planning.
Second, we discuss briefly the applicability of strategic planning to organizations, collaborations, cross-boundary functions, and places. Third, we discuss how the various approaches to strategic planning have been conceptualized and what research shows, if anything, regarding their use and effectiveness.
Fourth, we look at important themes in the research and implications for future research. Finally, we offer a set of conclusions. The roots of public-sector strategic planning are originally mostly military and tied to statecraft Freedman, Starting in the s, however, most of the development of the concepts, procedures, tools and practices of strategic planning has occurred in the for-profit sector.Fundamental Differences in public planning Domain Business and public sector strategies are formulated on quite different assumptions.
While business strategy is developed on the assumption of competition for limited market share, public plans are developed in pursuit or promotion of public interest in a politically charged environment. You might think of AI as futuristic, but it's already having a huge impact on government.
Cognitive technologies can't replace the complex strategic planning and management required of public administrators. But we're entering an era of automated intelligence -- the computerization of tasks previously thought to require human judgement.
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