We;re pretty sure the manuscript shows that Einstein first dropped the cc in earlywhen he realised that evolving models were less contrived than steady-state theories. Btw, Slipher did not work at Mt Wilson, he carried out his pioneering observations of nebular redshifts at Flagstaff a decade earlier. Pilgrim I always viewed the universe pulsating ; expanding then deflating ; being pulled together by the gravity of planets, starsetc; but then being pushed away by this dark energy! How are we life even possible?
Ethiop J Health Sci. Abstract Background Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses.
The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town.
Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on employees' knowledge of food hygiene and their practices as well on sanitary conditions of the food service establishments Results The median age of the food handlers was 22 years and among the subjects 99 Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.
Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. Conclusion This study revealed poor sanitary conditions and poor food hygiene practices of handlers.
Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and licensing and regular inspections have been recommended. Food safety is of utmost concern in the twenty-first century 2. Food service establishments are sources of food borne illnesses and food handlers contribute to food borne illness outbreaks 34.
According to WHOfood handling personnel play important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of food production and storage 5. Mishandling and disregard of hygienic measures on the part of the food handlers may enable pathogenic bacteria to come into contact with food and in some cases survive and multiply in Meat inspection theory and reality numbers to cause illness in the consumer.
Studies by FAO recorded Meat inspection theory and reality knowledge, practices in food handling in the assessment of microbial contamination of food sold by vendors 6.
The hands of food service employees can be vectors in the spread of food borne diseases because of poor personal hygiene or cross-contamination. Studies point out that most outbreaks result from improper food handling practices 7.
Lack of basic infrastructure, lack of knowledge of hygiene, absence of potable water, lack of proper storage facility and unsuitable environments for food operations such as proximity to sewers and garbage dumps can contribute to poor microbial quality of foods.
Inadequate facilities for garbage disposal posed further hazards 8. In addition poor sanitary practices in food storage, handling, and preparation can create an environment in which bacteria and other infectious agents are more easily transmitted 9 Moreover, inadequate time and temperature control and cross contamination are responsible for food poisoning outbreaks Poor personal hygiene frequently contributes to foodborne illness which indicates that food handlers' knowledge and handling practices needs to be improved.
Studies on the conditions of food and drink establishments have been scanty in Ethiopia 12 A study conducted among food handlers in Bahir Dar town indicated that most of them were infected with enteric bacteria and parasites Good personal hygiene and food handling practices are the basis for preventing the transmission of pathogens from food handlers to the consumers Therefore, to reduce foodborne illnesses, it is crucial to gain an understanding of the knowledge and practices of food handlers Information on the food safety knowledge and practices from Bahir Dar is limited.
The aim of this study was therefore to obtain current information on the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town.
Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in May to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practice of food handlers and assess the sanitary conditions of food and drink establishments in Bahir Dar town.
The town has a total population ofand it is one of the tourist destinations in the country In Bahir Dar rural to urban migration is on the increase and the number of people eating outside their homes is expected to increase which in turn demands for more food establishments.
A census was conducted to obtain the list of food and drink establishments in Bahir Dar town and the town was divided into three zones based on the density of food and drink establishments.
A proportional sample size was determined for each zone and the food service establishments were randomly selected from each zone using random table. Four hundred fifty five food handlers working in hotels, cafe and restaurants cafes, hotels and juice houses were randomly selected for the study.
Five sanitarians were recruited for data collection and supervision. Data collectors and supervisor were oriented about the purpose of the study, the components of the questionnaire and data quality management. A pretested, structured questionnaire was used for data collection.
The questionnaire was initially prepared in English and translated into Amharic for data collection. The knowledge questionnaire contained items on the source and methods of transmission of food borne pathogens and knowledge of food handling.
The questionnaire on food safety knowledge includes seven questions. Data collectors interviewed the food handlers and observed the food handlers while they were performing their chores to see their food handling practices and collected information on food preparation and handling in the facilities and the sanitary condition of the facilities.
Food handlers were asked to indicate their level of agreement to the statements.
They have also collected information on the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the handlers. A checklist was used by data collectors to assess the food handlers' food handling practices.Inspection and reality. Posted on February 3, but the whole concept of inspection as verification of actual food safety practices is flawed.
The theory behind inspection is that an operator (of a processing company, a restaurant, a church dinner, whatever) has a set of guidelines to follow to make and sell safe food. and evaluates food.
“Our approach has been to develop data standards with industry that will make theory reality and I’m delighted that we’ve been able to show that blockchain does indeed work in this part of the food industry.
In reality, the grain on most of the briskets you come across will be like the blue line, somewhere in between. Garnish In theory, the use or absence of garnish in a KCBS contest entry should not impact your scores from the judges. In practice, garnish absolutely affects your scores.
I have yet to come across a team that wins consistently. Until recently, few studies have used social network theory (SNT) and metrics to examine how social network structure (SNS) might influence social behavior and social dynamics in non-human animals.
According to the Bible, God killed or authorized the killings of up to 25 million people. This is the God of which Jesus was an integral part.
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.