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Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message In Augustthe Japanese army invaded Shanghai where they met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties.
The battle was bloody as both sides faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat.
By mid-November the Japanese had captured Shanghai with the help of naval bombardment. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo initially decided not to expand the war due to heavy casualties and low troop morale. Relocation of the capital After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew that the fall of Nanjing was a matter of time.
He and his staff realized that they could not risk the annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital. To preserve Main reasons for the nanking massacre army for future battles, most of it was withdrawn. Chiang's strategy was to follow the suggestion of his German advisers to draw the Japanese army deep into China and use China's vast territory as a defensive strength.
Chiang planned to fight a protracted war of attrition to wear down the Japanese in the hinterland of China. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. June In a press release to foreign reporters, Tang Shengzhi announced the city would not surrender and would fight to the death.
Tang gathered aboutsoldiers, largely untrained, including Chinese troops who had participated in the Battle of Shanghai. To prevent civilians from fleeing the city, he ordered troops to guard the port, as instructed by Chiang Kai-shek.
The defense force blocked roads, destroyed boats, and burnt nearby villages, preventing widespread evacuation. The Chinese government left for relocation on December 1, and the president left on December 7, leaving the fate of Nanjing to an International Committee led by John Rabe.
From this gunboat, Rabe sent two telegrams. The first was through an American ambassador in Hankow to Chiang, asking that Chinese forces "undertake no military operations" within Nanjing. The second telegram was sent through Shanghai to Japanese military leaders, advocating for a three-day cease-fire so the Chinese could withdraw from the city.
The following day, on December 10, Rabe got his answer from the Generalissimo. The American ambassador in Hankow replied that although he supported Rabe's proposal for a cease-fire, Chiang did not.
Rabe says that the ambassador also "sent us a separate confidential telegram telling us that he has been officially informed by the Foreign Ministry in Hankow that our understanding that General Tang agreed to a three-day armistice and the withdrawal of his troops from Nanjing is mistaken, and moreover that Chiang Kai-shek has announced that he is not in a position to accept such an offer.
Nanjing had been constantly bombed for days and the Chinese troops that remained there were disheartened and had taken to drinking before the city's inevitable fall.
On December 11, Rabe found that Chinese soldiers were still residing in areas of the Safety Zone, meaning that it became an intended target for Japanese attack despite the majority were innocent civilians.
Rabe commented on how efforts to remove these Chinese troops failed and Japanese soldiers began to lob grenades into the refugee zone. Many atrocities were reported to have been committed as the Japanese army advanced from Shanghai to Nanjing.
According to one Japanese journalist embedded with Imperial forces at the time, "The reason that the [10th Army] is advancing to Nanjing quite rapidly is due to the tacit consent among the officers and men that they could loot and rape as they wish.
Targets within and outside of the city walls — such as military barracks, private homes, the Chinese Ministry of Communication, forests and even entire villages — were completely burnt down, at an estimated value of 20 to 30 million US dollars.
Nanking Safety Zone Many Westerners were living in the city at that time, conducting trade or on missionary trips.
As the Japanese army approached Nanjing, most of them fled the city, leaving 27 foreigners. Five of these were journalists who remained in the city a few days after it was captured, leaving the city on December Fifteen of the remaining 22 foreigners formed a committee, called the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone in the western quarter of the city.
The Japanese government had previously agreed not to attack parts of the city that did not contain Chinese military forces, and the members of the Committee managed to persuade the Chinese government to move their troops out of the area.John Heinrich Detlef Rabe (November 23, – January 5, ) was a German businessman and Nazi Party member who is best known for his efforts to stop the atrocities of the Japanese army during the Nanking Occupation and his work to protect and help the Chinese civilians during the event.
The Nanking Safety Zone, which he helped to establish, sheltered approximately , Chinese people.
The Devil of Nanking: A Novel [Mo Hayder] on srmvision.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Obsessed by the past, a young Englishwoman arrives in Tokyo to seek a long-lost piece of film footage dating back to the Nanking Massacre. The massacre was one of the more horrific events of the 20th century.
The act of exacting revenge upon the descendants of the one who originally did the wrong.. Why someone would target the descendants rather than the one who originally did the wrong tends to vary, but it's usually due to the original offender not being alive enough to go after and make suffer. Don't be fooled by the reviews claiming this is an artsy giallo. This is a surreal and extremely tactile movie about female sexuality and senses, with no exploitation, by way of an homage to classic Italian horror. John Heinrich Detlef Rabe (November 23, – January 5, ) was a German businessman and Nazi Party member who is best known for his efforts to stop the atrocities of the Japanese army during the Nanking Occupation and his work to protect and help the Chinese civilians during the event. The Nanking Safety Zone, which he helped to establish, sheltered approximately , Chinese people.
I can’t tell you the reasons myself but you would be missing out not to check out Kaiser Kuo’s recent podcast on the topic, where he interviews Oxford University Chinese History Professor Rana Mitter on the Nanjing Massacre. Main Reasons for the Nanking Massacre Essay Part A: My research question is: ‘’What Was the Main Cause of the Nanking Massacre?’’ In this project, I will be investigating the different potential causes of the Nanking Massacre.
The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the s. The delightful Belgian town of Malmédy will forever be associated with the most infamous massacre of American troops in World War II.
And yet, but for the presence of an Associated Press correspondent there in early January , it is doubtful that this terrible incident would have ever achieved.