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Development[ edit ] From birthinfants possess rudimentary facial processing capacities and show heightened interest in faces.
Specifically, while newborns show a preference for faces, this behavior is reduced between one- to four months of age. Five-month-olds, when presented with an image of a person making a fearful expression and a person making a happy expression, pay the same amount of attention to and exhibit similar event-related potentials ERPs for both.
However, when seven-month-olds are given the same treatment, they focus more on the fearful face, and their event-related potential for the scared face shows a stronger initial negative central component than that for the happy face. This result indicates an increased attentional and cognitive focus toward fear that reflects the threat -salient nature of the emotion.
Jeffrey and Rhodes  write that faces "convey a wealth of information that we use to guide our social interactions". The perception of a positive or negative emotion on a face affects the way that an individual perceives and processes that face.
For example, a face that is perceived to have a negative emotion is processed in a less holistic manner than a face displaying a positive emotion.
The neurological mechanisms responsible for face recognition are present by age five. Research shows that the way children process faces is similar to that of adults, but adults process faces more efficiently. The reason for this may be because of advancements in memory and cognitive functioning that occur with age.
In addition, two ERP components in the posterior part of the brain are differently aroused by the two negative expressions tested. These results indicate that infants at this age can at least partially understand the higher level of threat from anger directed at them as compared to anger directed elsewhere.
Training three-month-old infants to reach for objects with Velcro -covered "sticky mitts" increases the amount of attention that they pay to faces as compared to passively moving objects through their hands and non-trained control groups. When presented with a happy or angry face, shortly followed by an emotionally neutral word read in a happy or angry tone, their ERPs follow different patterns.
Happy faces followed by angry vocal tones produce more changes than the other incongruous pairing, while there was no such difference between happy and angry congruous pairings, with the greater reaction implying that infants held greater expectations of a happy vocal tone after seeing a happy face than an angry tone following an angry face.
Being shown photographs of macaques during this three-month period gave nine-month-olds the ability to reliably distinguish between unfamiliar macaque faces.
Faces can tell things such as identity, mood, age, sex, race, and the direction that someone is looking.
The face inversion effect provides behavioral support of a specialized mechanism as people tend to have greater deficits in task performance when prompted to react to an inverted face than to an inverted object.
Electrophysiological support comes from the finding that the N and M responses tend to be face-specific. Neuro-imaging studies such as PET and fMRI studies have shown support for a specialized facial processing mechanism as they have identified regions of the fusiform gyrus that have higher activation during face perception tasks than other visual perception tasks.
Novel optical illusions such as the Flashed Face Distortion Effectin which scientific phenomenology outpaces neurological theory, also provide areas for research.
One of the most widely accepted theories of face perception argues that understanding faces involves several stages: This model developed by psychologists Vicki Bruce and Andrew Young argues that face perception might involve several independent sub-processes working in unison.
A "view centered description" is derived from the perceptual input. Simple physical aspects of the face are used to work out age, gender or basic facial expressions.
Most analysis at this stage is on feature-by-feature basis. That initial information is used to create a structural model of the face, which allows it to be compared to other faces in memory, and across views. After several exposures to a face this structural code allows us to recognize that face in different contexts.
This structural encoding can be seen to be specific for upright faces as demonstrated by the Thatcher effect. The structurally encoded representation is transferred to notional "face recognition units" that are used with "personal identity nodes" to identify a person through information from semantic memory.GLOBAL KLEPTOCRACY Self-serving leaders throughout the world increasingly assume power with the goal of becoming rich at the expense of the majority of their population, and of the commonweal.
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