However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage.
The idea of civil rights has a much narrower definition, being those rights specifically ascribed to citizens by governments.
This entry examines the evolution of civil rights in the United States and how they have impacted Arkansans since the Civil War.
Its particular focus is on how civil rights and citizenship were expanded through the social changes that occurred in the period. Civil War through Reconstruction At the outbreak of the Civil War incivil rights were largely defined by the Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments added to the U.
These granted specific personal freedoms and limited the power of federal government over individuals. Crucially, the question of what it meant to be a citizen of the United States—an important factor in determining who possessed civil rights—was still ill-defined. Certain groups were specifically excluded from citizenship.
African-American slaves were considered property rather than people. Most Native Americans were also not considered citizens of the United States.
Much of the modern concept of civil rights stems from the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution, often referred to collectively as the Reconstruction or Civil Rights Amendments.
The Thirteenth Amendment ratified in outlawed slavery in the United States. One of the earliest efforts to manage the transition from slavery to freedom, and to help African Americans to exercise their newfound rights, was the creation of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands a. A number of African Americans won prominent political positions during Reconstruction through the right to participate in politics.
Ferdinand Havis was elected as a Pine Bluff Jefferson County alderman, state representative, assessor, and county clerk. Nevertheless, the rights of African Americans were limited.
Economically disadvantaged, many were forced into exploitative sharecropping and tenant farming contracts with white landowners. White violence such as whitecapping, nightriding, and lynchingsometimes orchestrated by white terror groups such as the Ku Klux Klan KKKprovided extralegal means of denying African Americans the ability to exercise their civil rights in a number of ways—from, for example, preventing or dissuading them from voting, to the ultimate denial of civil rights by unlawful murder.
The education system set up in Arkansas during Reconstruction was segregated by race, a forerunner of a more pervasive expansion of Jim Crow laws in the post-Reconstruction era. Black women and their male partners used their newfound freedom to have their marriages legally recognized for the first time, thereby stabilizing and strengthening their families.
While denied the right to vote, black women also benefitted from political and social changes by holding prominent roles during Reconstruction. Charlotte Andrews Stephens was appointed as the first black teacher in the Little Rock schools inthe first of many such women to enter the profession in that city and across the state.
For Native Americans, the Civil War and Reconstruction only extended their previous disruption and displacement in Arkansas and underscored their lack of citizenship and thereby their lack of civil rights. The slave-owning history of those tribes aligned them with the Confederate cause.
When Confederate promises of support and protection in return for service failed to materialize, many fled to Union-held Kansas. Returning at the end of the war, Native American tribes often found their former lands destroyed.
Indian agents imposed harsh penalties on tribes in retaliation for alliances with the Confederacy. Post-Reconstruction through the Gilded Age The return of the Democratic Party to political power in Arkansas in effectively brought Reconstruction to an end.
Disfranchisement was achieved by two means.
The first was a secret ballot law passed in that required illiterate voters to have election judges mark their ballots. This handed power to people who were not predisposed to uphold black voting rights. The second was a one-dollar poll tax.What exactly constitutes “rights” and who holds them has changed over time.
The Declaration of Independence famously declared “that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”.
Frederick Jackson Turner remains one of the most influential historians of America's past, and his famous frontier thesis is related to the above idea, in that his basic idea is that constant contact with an open frontier for almost years of American history contributed to America's uniqueness—or exceptionalism.
MyGen web site Outlaw Geneology, Outlaw Lost Chords mp3, srmvision.com demonstrates the latest in deployment of Linux as a server. Examples of SSL/Stronghold, Java, VRML, RealAudio and more.
Come here for old and new Linux tools. Unit 3 History Test. STUDY. PLAY. Wich one of the following did the populists support. a. the turner thesis B.
A PROGRESSIVE INCOME TAX c. staying on the gold standard d. decrease the amount of money in circulation. Which one of the following is a lingering myth about the west?
Turner Thesis Summary Throughout history society has to go through many changes that not only affect many of the people but also the areas around the transformation. The major difference between Booker T. Washington’s views and W.E.B. Du Bois’s views was Du Bois’s A. emphasis on vocational training for African Americans B.
emphasis on a liberal arts education for African Americans C. emphasis on the right of African Americans to demand whatever education they needed to gain full equality D.
support for the .