During the next two years we consulted with many women and men—clergy, religious, and laity—from all over the country. In sharing with us their comments and critiques, questions and experiences, they have enriched our work and contributed immeasurably to the present document. In particular, we thank the members of the steering committee, who helped to identify the major issues addressed in From Words to Deeds, and the advisors to the Committee on Women, who generously contributed their time and expertise to this project.
End to Population Growth: We are far from a world in which all births result from intended pregnancies. For various reasons they are not using contraception. If all births resulted from women actively intending to conceive, fertility would immediately fall slightly below the replacement level; world population would peak within a few decades and subsequently decline.
It is not expensive to help all women to be in fully control of the timing and frequency of their childbearing. The key obstacles are religious, cultural, and political opposition to contraception or the possibility of population decline. More research and a public better educated about sexuality and reproduction could engender a global social movement that would make possible a world of intended pregnancies and births.
We have 18 families and no one has more than three children. The health of the children and mothers has improved, and so has the spacing of babies. Everyone understands the importance of family planning now. This holistic view has helped slow the increase in world population. The average family has declined from six children in to around three today.
Education and improved health for women and access to contraception are vital. Smaller families are healthier families and improve the prospects of each generation. Since more women have access to education and other rights, and more early-marriage traditions are being opposed.
Most countries have laws prohibiting violence against women, female genital mutilation, and other violations of human rights. The Two Parts of Sustainability Are Consumption and Population The world could possibly reduce consumption down to a very basic level, but if population keeps growing, eventually that will not be enough.
Even today many are living on a sub-sustainable level, due in part to an uneven distribution of resources, but also because, in many regions, population has outgrown essential resources for that region. When people feel threatened by a hand-to-mouth existence, they are more likely to look towards less-than democratic ways to reduce population, especially if they have the foresight to realize that population growth is like a run-away train, very difficult to slow and stop.
However, more and more evidence is showing that the methods that work the best towards reducing population growth, are the methods established by the principles of the Cairo Conference in United Nations International Conference on Population and Development ICPD SeptemberCairo, Egyptwhich include: Empowering women and girls in the economic, political, and social arenas; b.
Removing gender disparities in education; c. Integrating family planning with related efforts to improve maternal and child health; and d.
Iran has more than halved its fertility rate in a decade. In addition, contraception helps lengthen the interval of birth spacing, improving perinatal outcomes and child survival.
Greater-than-average risk to maternal, perinatal, and child survival is associated with pregnancies at very young 34 years maternal ages, at high parities, and with short interpregnancy intervals, and with pregnancies that would have ended in unsafe abortion.
It ties directly to fertility rates and thus quantify the risk of maternal death per woman. It is indicative of risk per pregnancy due to poor access to and quality of obstetric services. It also responds to fertility rates, which can affect the proportion of births to women with greater-than-average obstetric risk.
MMRatios tend to be raised at parity 1, then become lowered at paritiesthen raised again atand highest at parities greater than 6. Raised maternal mortality risks at high parities have been seen in Pakistan, Senegal, and west Africa. It also ties directly to fertility rates and thus quantify the risk of maternal death per woman.
A fall in the number of pregnancies lowers the number of maternal deaths. Another category of high-risk pregnancies are those that end in unsafe abortion. Contraceptive use can prevent recourse to induced abortion and eliminate most of these deaths. Infant and child mortality and health: For infants children younger than 1 yearthe shorter the interval 18 months or lessthe greater the mortality risk.
Other studies reported that the birth of a younger sibling within 2 years of the index child was associated with a doubling of mortality at ages 1 - 2 years, and smaller adverse effects at ages 2 - 4 years.
The most prevalent method of contraception worldwide is surgical sterilisation. Female sterilisation tubal sterilisation and male sterilisation vasectomy have immediate surgical risks, but the risks of death and serious morbidity are very small with tubal sterilisation and even lower with vasectomy.
Although the risk of pregnancy is low after tubal sterilisation, when pregnancy does occur, it is more likely to be ectopic; however, the absolute risk of ectopic gestation is lower than when no contraception is used.
Intrauterine devices IUDs are the most widely used modern method of reversible contraception. The risk of pelvic inflammatory disease is very low in women fitted with an IUD who have a low risk for sexually transmitted infections, but women with cervical chlamydial or gonococcal infections who have an IUD are at increased risk.Latest environmental news, features and updates.
Pictures, video and more. Continuing Reflections on the Role of Women in the Church Committee on Women in Society and in the Church National Conference of Catholic Bishops. In Brief TGWU protest action. Cosatu and its affiliates have pledged support for TGWU's nationwide action on July 2 to protest against plans to restructure the transport industry through privatisation, which the union says will jeopardise jobs.
But scan historical images of the most dramatic moments of the civil rights movement — protesters blasted by fire hoses and dogs lunging at blacks — and women and girls are everywhere.
In ancient India, women occupied a very important position, in fact a superior position to, men. It is a culture whose only words for strength and power are feminine -"Shakti'' means "power'' and "strength.''.
Rebecca Solnit, a TomDispatch regular, is the author of 17 books, including an expanded hardcover version of her paperback indie bestseller Men Explain Things to Me and a newly released anthology of her essays about places from Detroit to Kyoto to the Arctic, .